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Interventional radiology procedures can be used in almost every organ system, and the list of conditions that can be diagnosed and treated with minimally invasive techniques is constantly expanding. The list in the following paragraphs is by no means exhaustive.


  • Endovascular treatment for large aortic aneurysms

  • Recanalisation of arterial occlusive disease (e.g. due to diabetes and smoking) causing claudication or critical limb ischaemia with angioplasty or/and stenting

  • Thrombolysis, recanalisation and stenting post deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to restore flow and avoid post thrombotic syndrome

  • Thrombolysis for acute arterial thrombosis causing leg ischaemia

  • Angioplasty of malfunctioning arteriovenous fistula for dialysis due to stenosis

  • Insertion of tunnelled central venous line for haemodialysis

  • Minimally invasive emergency  treatment of acute haemorrhage e.g. due to trauma


  • Core biopsy for obtaining sample for histological diagnosis

  • Transjugular liver biopsy if percutaneous biopsy contraindicated e.g. due to abnormal coagulation

  • Insertion of tunelled central venous lines (Hickman / portacath) for e.g. chemotherapy

  • Minimally invasive percutaneous treatment with radiofrequency or microwave ablation of certain tumours (e.g. liver, lung, kidney)

  • Chemoembolisation for liver tumour

Chest and other:

  • Insertion (and retrieval) of IVC filter to prevent pulmonary thromboembolism in high risk cases

  • Image-guided drainage e.g. of pleural or abdominal fluid collection / abscess in various clinical scenarions

  • Drainage of complex collections e.g. pleural empyema

  • Minimally invasive radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) for various clinical scenarios where oral food intake is not possible

Genitourinary and abdominal:

  • Relief of obstructive uropathy e.g. due to stone or tumour with percutaneous nephrostomy +/- insertion of ureteric stent

  • Minimally invasive percutaneous embolisation of symptomatic scrotal varicocele causing pain, infertility or testicular atrophy

  • Embolisation of uterine fibroids causing pain, pressure symptoms or abnormal menstrual bleeding

  • Embolisation for pelvic congestion syndrome - internal varicose veins due to enlarged and incompetent ovarian and pelvic veins causing chronic pelvic pain

  • Prostate embolisation due to benign prostate gland hypertrophy for selected cases where surgery is not an option

  • Minimally invasive techniques (e.g. with drainage or stenting) to diagnose and relieve biliary obstruction causing jaundice due to either benign or malignant conditions

  • Percutaneous cholecystostomy for gallbladder infection / obstruction when surgery is not indicated

  • Mesenteric and renal artery angiography and endovascular treatment with angioplasty and/or stenting if indicated for chronic mesenteric ischaemia and hypertension respectively

Patient Awareness: your minimally invasive alternative 
Ενημέρωση Ασθενών: Η εναλλακτική σου στη χειρουργική
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